Wednesday, 20 December 2017

Activity Profile Between Winners and Losers of Silat Olahraga Male Athletes in SEA Games 2015 (Class A Male)

ABSTRACT

Silat can improve in self-defenses and it can be learned to use in competing a game which is it involve exciting, fun, and motivating for athlete (Shapie et al. 2013). The aim of this study was to investigate the activity profile between winners and losers of Silat Olahraga Male Category A Athletes in 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015. The games of silat that have investigated is in category of class A which is over 45-50kg. Four matches are selected, which are Men’s Class A Quarter-final 1, Quarter-final 2, Semi-final 1 and Final. Many techniques are used during this competition. For example, punch, kick, topple, sweep, block and many more.
            In addition, the notational analysis was used to record all the selected outcomes to compliment this study such as hit target, hit elsewhere and miss opponent indicators. The game statistic consists of punch, kick, topple, block, block and kick, block and punch, block and sweep, fake kick, fake punch, self-release, catch, dodge and others. Yet it will be classified on the hit-target, hit-elsewhere and miss target (Shapie, Oliver, O'Donoghue, & Tong, 2013). The losing team makes less movement than the winning team. Moreover, the winning team makes the much better movement during competition. All the raw data collected from the all matches used the system produced by (Shapie, Oliver, O’Donoghue, & Tong, 2013). The descriptive analysis was used to determine the difference performance between the winner and loser in silat match.

INTRODUCTION

The requirement and prescription of training programs for sport requires an understanding of the physiological requirements of the match. Various forms of time motion analyses have been used widely to estimate the nature of specific intermittent high intensity and low intensity activities as they relate to the energy requirements of team sports (Shapie et al. 2013). Silat Olahraga, also known as Silat, is a popular combat sport, but little is known about the sports in terms of sport science of physiological demands and characteristics (Anuar et al. 1993). A silat match is characterized by high anaerobic and aerobic metabolic responses. Therefore, specific protocols were developed to analyze the demands of youth silat competition to allow the identification and development of suitable silat sport-specific fitness tests which can be used to track the fitness development and trainability of youth silat performers (Aziz et al. 2002). Silat is also collective word for native’s martial arts that begins from Indonesia. Silat is a fighting and survival art combination. According to Wilson (2003), silat is a form several factors such as education from a tradition, a self-defense, a spiritual and ritual components and now its establish as a sport around the world. In Malay dictionary, silat can be defined as a combination if art and intelligence to perform attack and defense with a beautiful form. The other source that defines silat is from the word of kilat (lightning) (Shamsuddin, 2005). Silat traditionally practiced in Southern Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, Brunei, Philippines and also Malaysia. Plus, it has evolved on the African continent, Western countries, the United States and the Soviet countries. It is widely implemented in the form of art and sports competitions. Silat is one of the sports included in the Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games) and other region-wide competitions. The requirement and prescription of training programmed for sport requires an understanding of the physiological requirements of the match (Aziz, Tan & The, 2002).

MATERIALS AND METHOD

Match analysis
Based on the Four matches from Men’s Class A were selected to be the sample or subject. The games include:
1.    Quarter-final 1 (Indonesia Vs Singapore)
2.    Quarter-final 2 (Malaysia Vs Thailand)
3.    Semi-final 1 (Indonesia Vs Philippines)
4.    Final (Indonesia Vs Vietnam)
Four games were selected to be analyzed by the researcher. The data analysis has been collected from 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015 Men’s Class A athlete. The source of match videos was found from YouTube.
By watching the video, the matches have been used to notated and analyzed in this study. Every match consists of three (3) rounds in total of fighting. Two (2) minutes for every round, with 1minute rest between each round. The outcome used is hit target, hit elsewhere and miss opponent. Hit target will be counted if the kick and topple is made hit the body pad or target. Hit elsewhere if the kick and topple is made hit the other part of body that not hit the target or body pad. Meanwhile the miss opponent will be counted when the kick or topple is made did not hit the opponent. The video has been notated by Naimah Ayuni binti Mohamed.


 Motion categories
Silat exponent’s motions were coded into 14 different types of categories and were defined as follows:
Punch:
·         The punch ‘tumbuk’ attack is done by a hand with a closed fist hitting the target. In silat punching is often used to fight the opponent. It can be a straight punch ‘tumbuk lurus’ or uppercut ‘sauk’ to the exponent body’s ((Shapie, Oliver, O'Donoghue, & Tong, 2013).
Kick:
·         The kick ‘tendang / terajang’ is an attacking movement which is performed with one leg or two legs simultaneously. A kick can be aimed at any target. It can be front kick ‘tendang depan’, side-kick ‘depak’ or semi-circular side kick ‘tendang lengkar’ (Shapie, Oliver, O'Donoghue, & Tong, 2013).
Block:
·         The blocking movements begin with the posture position ‘sikap pasang’: the exponent stands straight with his hands around his body or close to his chest. Blocking or parrying ‘tangkisan’ can be done using arms, elbows and legs with the purpose to block off or striking back at any attack (Shapie, Oliver, O'Donoghue, & Tong, 2013).
Catch:
·         The catch ‘tangkapan’ is done by using the hand to obstruct the opponent from carrying out an attack. The silat exponent is able to prevent himself from being attacked by pointing the attack which he has caught to another direction. A catch which twists or drags the opponent is forbidden. Also, a catch which could break the part which is being held such as the leg and waist is also forbidden. These regulations exist to protect the silat exponent’s (Shapie, Oliver, O'Donoghue, & Tong, 2013).
Topple:
·         There are various ways of toppling down one’s opponent. For example, a silat exponent ‘pesilat’ can either push, shove the opponent’s back leg from the bag or from the side, shove, hit, kick, strike or punch to make the opponent lose his balance. Every fall is considered valid as long as the silat exponent topples his opponent down without wrestling or he is able to overpower the opponent whom he has brought down (Shapie, Oliver, O'Donoghue, & Tong, 2013).
Sweep:
·         Swiping ‘sapuan’ involves attacking an opponent’s leg which are on the ground to unstabilise him and bring down to the ground. A silat exponent can perform this attacking movement either with his right or left leg, Hence, front sweep ‘sapuan depan’ is done by swinging the leg to the front to push an opponent’s front leg, while back sweep ‘sapuan belakang’ is carried out by swinging the leg backward to hit the back leg (Shapie, Oliver, O'Donoghue, & Tong, 2013).
Evade/Dodge:
·         The evade ‘elakan’ technique is carried out by silat exponent when he tries to evade an attack. This technique does not require the silat exponent to touch the opponent in fending off the attack. They are many ways of carrying out his defensive movement such as dodging ‘gelek’, retreat ‘mundur’, evasion to the side ‘elak sisi’, bending ‘elak serung’, jumping ‘lonjak’, ducking ‘susup’ and etc (Shapie, Oliver, O'Donoghue, & Tong, 2013).
Self-Release:
·         Self-release ‘lepas tangkapan’ technique is a technique to unlock any clinch or catch from an opponent (Shapie, Oliver, O'Donoghue, & Tong, 2013).
Block and Punch:
·         The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using the hand to punch the opponent (Shapie, Oliver, O'Donoghue, & Tong, 2013).
Block and Kick:
·         The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using the leg to kick the opponent (Shapie, Oliver, O'Donoghue, & Tong, 2013).
Block and Sweep:
·         The blocking technique is used to block any hand or leg attack from the opponent and followed by counter attack using sweeping technique to the opponent.
Fake Punch:
·         An action which a silat exponent intends to confuse the opponent using a fake punch to break his opponent’s defensive posture (Shapie, Oliver, O'Donoghue, & Tong, 2013).
Fake Kick:
·         An action which a silat exponent intends to confuse the opponent using a fake kick to break his opponent defensive posture (Shapie, Oliver, O'Donoghue, & Tong, 2013).
Others:
·         Both silat exponents are either in posture position ‘sikap pasang’ or coming close to each other using silat step pattern ‘pola langkah’. All the activities are considered high intensity except for others which at that time both silat exponents are in low intensity periods (Shapie, Oliver, O'Donoghue, & Tong, 2013).

Reliability of observation

The author analyzed all the activities and simultaneously classified each change of motion in a single match. Two observations were done separated by 48 hours. It requires experienced silat practitioners to analyze the data as the movement of both exponents is fast, needing close inspection. The classification of movement was subjective with work being classified according to the instruction given by the referee.

Statistical Analysis

The observation generated data will be frequency counted. Mean and standard deviation (SD) for all the marker has been computed to locate the measurable factors that separated winning and losing group. Statistical analysis was conducted by using statistical package for social scientist (SPSS). A chi square test of independence was used to determine if there was a similar profile of actions performed by the red and blue contestant in the match. An alpha level of (p<0.05) was taken to show statistical significant.


RESULT
 
Table 1. Frequency of actions and outcomes recorded during four silat matches

Actions
Outcome
Hit Elsewhere
Hit Target
Miss Opponent
Total
Block
1
6
10
17
Block and Kick
0
1
0
1
Block and Punch
0
0
0
0
Block and Sweep
0
0
0
0
Kick
40
67
9
116
Fake Kick
Punch
15
36
12
63
Fake Punch
Self-Release
1
14
2
17
Topple
4
15
11
30
Sweep
22
22
29
73
Catch
16
26
9
51
Dodge
7
23
1
31
Total
106
210
83
399

Table 1


 Table 2: Silat Men’s Class A 45-50kg category Quarter-final 1.

o    Singapore vs Indonesia (Indonesia Win)

Action
Hit Target
Hit Elsewhere
Miss Opponent
LOSER
WINNER
LOSER
WINNER
LOSER
WINNER
Block & Punch
Block & Kick
Block & Sweep
Block
7
0
Kick
14
15
6
3
0
2
Fake Kick
2
1
Punch
9
8
5
0
4
3
Fake Punch
Topple
2
3
2
4
Catch
0
5
4
0
Dodge
0
2
1
0
Sweep
1
2
0
1
4
9
Self-Release
Total
26
35
18
5
17
18
61
58









Table 2
FREQUENCY PROFILE
EXPONENT
PUNCH
KICK
SWEEP
TOPPLE
TOTAL
WINNER
11
20
12
7
50
LOSER
18
20
5
4
47






Table 3: Silat Men’s Class A 45-50kg category Quarter-final 2.

o   Malaysia Vs Thailand (Malaysia Win)
Action
Hit Target
Hit Elsewhere
Miss Opponent
WINNER
LOSER
WINNER
LOSER
WINNER
LOSER
Block & Punch
Block & Kick
1
Block & Sweep
Block
2
3
Kick
9
4
4
5
4
2
Fake Kick
Punch
6
5
2
3
3
2
Fake Punch
Topple
2
3
2
2
2
2
Catch
8
3
2
2
1
Dodge
6
5
1
Sweep
3
2
2
3
2
Self-Release
4
7
1
2
Total
40
30
13
15
15
8
68
53



















Table 3

FREQUENCY PROFILE
EXPONENT
PUNCH
KICK
SWEEP
TOPPLE
TOTAL
WINNER
11
17
8
6
42
LOSER
10
11
4
8
33







Table 4: Silat Men’s Class A 45-50kg category Semi-finals.

o   Philippines Vs Indonesia (Indonesia Win)



Actions
Outcome

Hit target


Hit Elsewhere

Miss Opponent

Total

LOSER

WINNER

LOSER

WINNER


LOSER

WINNER

Block
2
3




5
Block and Kick







Block and Punch







Block and Sweep

1




1
Kick
9
7
6
6
4
1
33
Fake kick

1




1
Punch
2
2
4

1

9
Fake punch







Self-release
1





1
Topple

3



1
4
Sweep
1
8


5
4
18
Catch

6




6
Dodge

3




3
Others







Total

15

34

10

6

10

6

81


Table 4

FREQUENCY PROFILE
EXPONENT
PUNCH
KICK
SWEEP
TOPPLE
TOTAL
WINNER
2
16
12
4
34
LOSER
7
19
6
0
32







Table 5: Men’s Class A 45-50kg category Finals.

o   Vietnam Vs Indonesia (Vietnam Win)

Action
Hit Target
Hit Elsewhere
Miss Target

Total
LOSER
WINNER
LOSER
WINNER
LOSER
WINNER
Block
1




1
2
Block and kick







Block and punch







Block and sweep







Kick
4
4
3
6
1

18
Fake Kick
3
2




5
Punch



1


1
Fake Punch
2
1




3
Self-release
1
2


2
3
8
Toople
1
1



1
3
Sweep
4
4
5
9

3
25
Catch

5
3
1


9
Dodge
7
1
3
1
1

13
Others







Total
23
20
14
18
4
8
87

Table 5

FREQUENCY PROFILE
EXPONENT
PUNCH
KICK
SWEEP
TOPPLE
TOTAL
LOSER
0
8
9
1
18
WINNER
1
10
16
2
29



DISCUSSION
Silat game is exceptionally intriguing in light of the fact that it includes an ability that was a mix of hand to hand fighting aptitudes, battling, and self-protection. The examination past is states that silat competitors tought to be extraordinary in both kicking and punching yet punching recurrence is lower than a kicking (Shapie et al., 2013). However, silat competitors should create punching ability speedier and precise in light of the fact that punching is the high rate effective of hitting target contrast with kicking expertise in rivalry (Shapie et al., 2013). Usually, silat competitor more like to hit opponent by kicking skill contrast with punching ability. While opponents do kick however it doesn't address the part of the body, it demonstrates that the opponent is feeling the loss of a kick that does not give any points to the opponent.
The games of silat that the researcher has been notate and investigated is in category of class A which is over 45-50kg. Four matches are selected, which are Men’s Class A Quarter-final 1, Quarter-final 2, Semi-final 1 and Final. The first quarter final is between Indonesia and Singapore which is Indonesia won the game. The winner athlete used more in sweep and topple technique than the loser athlete that made him lost to the winner. Quickness and power of slower strength are the factors in sweep and topple technique. Besides, the winner is very good in maintaining his performance while Singapore athlete is lack of agility movement that unable to block the attacking from the opponent. Next, the second quarterfinal is between Malaysia and Thailand. Malaysia won over Thailand because Malaysian athlete has a good and power lower body strength where he used kicking and sweeping technique to win the game. Moreover, he is good to make a quick and tricky move in attacking the athlete. He is able to punch and kick to opponent in the target area as well.
In addition, the third game that the researcher has been notated is the first semi-final game of male class A category which is Indonesia versus Philippines. Indonesia won this game because Indonesian athlete is very quick in making attacking to his opponent. Even though the frequency of punching is lower than kicking, the high percentage of hitting the target showed that punching is the most successful action for a silat exponent to get a point in competition. Therefore, training should aim to develop punching ability and accuracy. However, it is important to know that any local muscular fatigue experienced during a match maybe more likely to occur in the lower limbs due to the large number of kicks performed in a short period of time (Aziz et al. 2002). Lastly, the researcher notated the final game of male class A category which is Indonesia versus Vietnam. Vietnam won against Indonesia. Based on the result, it can conclude that Vietnam athlete has a very good tactical and top performance during attacking and defending. The tactical used by Vietnamese silat’s athlete is more on kicking and topple because they are focusing on getting point even some of round in the match they lose seldom of points. Moreover, Vietnamese athlete are using wait and attack strategy as we can see hit target percentage is higher than the miss opponent. Most of the athlete also like to use avoiding and come back with topple technique.
The winner exponent was using the blocking technique more while receiving an attack from the loser exponent which in this study was categorized as a kick technique. Thus, beside from silat techniques the results suggested successful silat exponents tended to demonstrate high upper body isometric strength (catch) and power (punch and block) and superior lower body strength and power (kicks), endurance (repetition of kicks) and speed (kick velocity). Thus, the need for limb speed for kicking and punching, better co-ordination to evade strikes and also other factors as aforementioned that influences movement patterns common to silat competition need to be taken into consideration.


CONCLUSION
Post-event analysis of hand notation indicates that the prototype system developed for this study can be used to record and evaluate a silat match. The current study has provided a great understanding of information for the silat by looking at the activity involved in competition. Both of the exponents performed more high intensity actions than low intensity actions. However, it is important to understand that high intensity actions will contribute more in the score points rather than low intensity actions. There is also a range of frequency in attacking and defensive activities used by both of the exponents.
According to the table 1 above, most of the actions that used by the exponent is kicking, while punch is second most used for the high intensity activity and others represents low intensity activity. The kicking always used by the exponent with 116 times kicking and punching is secondly used with 63 times. With many kicking and punches executed, the exponent lacking in blocking, sweeping, catching techniques, toppling down the opponent, sweeping and dodging the attack from the opponent. Every match shows a good performance during match. Accuracy play important role in Silat olahraga. Hit the target will get more point. While the miss opponent will give advantage to the opponent team and will give them point to win. What we can see from the video recording men’s Class A, the athlete tries more kick than use sweep. That action also gives advantage to the opponent which the opponent will try to sweep. More kick than use sweep. That action also gives advantage to the opponent which the opponent will try to sweep.


REFERENCES

·         A. Wahab. (1989). Silat olahraga: The art, techniques and regulations: Dewan Bahasa dan
Pustaka Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.
·         Anuar. (1993). Silat olahraga (2nd edn.). The art, technique and regulations: Dewan Bahasa
dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur.
·         Aziz, A. R., Tan, B., & Teh, K. C. (2002). Physiological responses during matches and profile
of elite pencak silat exponents. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 1, 147-155.
·         D. Farrer. (2009). Seni silat haqq melayu: A sufi martial art Shadows of the prophet (pp. 3-
42): Springer
·         M. M. Shapie, J. Oliver, P. O’Donoghue, & R. Tong. (2013). Activity profile during action time
in national silat competition. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts., 1(2), 81-86.
·         Wilson, I. D. (2003). The politics of inner power: the practice of Pencak Silat in West Java (Doctoral dissertation, Murdoch University).

YouTube Links
1.    Pencak Silat Tanding Men's Class A Final INA vs VIE (Day 9) - 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TogWi7jsKcU&t=25s
2.    Pencak Silat Men's Tanding Class A Semi-Final PHI vs INA (Day 8) | 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s5JphsM7YiU
3.     Pencak Silat Tanding Category Indonesia vs Singapore (Day 6) | 28th SEA Games Singapore 2015 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VdKHSsMioug

    APPENDICES

 Group Statistics

Table 1

Group
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Score
WINNER
3
18.0000
15.39480
8.88819
LOSER
3
20.3333
4.93288
2.84800


Table 1: Silat Men’s Class A Quarter-Final 1 between Singapore Vs Indonesia (Indonesia Win)

 Table 2

Group
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Score
WINNER
3
7.11
3.516
.874
LOSER
3
6.4
3.323
.911


Table 2: Silat Men’s Class A Quarter-Final 2 between Malaysia Vs Thailand (Malaysia Win)

Table 3

Group
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Score
WINNER
3
8.33
9.292
5.364
LOSER
3
7.00
5.364
4.041

Table 3: Silat Men’s Class A Semi-Final between Philippines Vs Indonesia (Indonesia Win)

Table 4

Group
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Score
WINNER
3
15.333
2.4015
6.43774
LOSER
3
13.666
3.8222
9.06652


Table 4: Silat Men’s Class A Final between Vietnam Vs Indonesia (Vietnam Win)


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Activity Profile Between Winners and Losers of Silat Olahraga Male Athletes in SEA Games 2015 (Class A Male)

ABSTRACT Silat can improve in self-defenses and it can be learned to use in competing a game which is it involve exciting, fun, and mo...